In the book a frightening world is described where every aspect of life is rigidly controlled. The citizens are suppressed by the Party which leads the state. At the top of the hierarchy is Big Brother, the leader of the Party. There’s also an arch-enemy of the Party and he’s called Emmanuel Goldstein. Goldstein used to be a member of the Inner Party before he changed sides. Now he’s the leader of the so-called Brotherhood. The hatred of the party members against Emmanuel Goldstein and other enemies of the Party is daily expressed in the “Two Minutes Hate”.Under the rule of the Party there’s no freedom of speech and not even freedom of thought. All members of the Party are observed 24 hours a day by so-called telescreens and by microphones. In case of a crime or an expected crime (which would be any action against the Party), the offender is arrested by the Thought Police and may disappear forever. After disappearing any information of that person is erased and nobody can prove that this person has ever existed. Other information is constantly falsified in such a way, that the Party is proved to have always been right. This leads to the fact that all information about the time before the Party claimed power has disappeared. As a conclusion one may say that the past is lost. People accept these lies, because they are manipulated by the so-called “doublethink”. “Doublethink” means that the reality is controlled through the ability to hold two contradictory opinions in one’s mind at the same time. The best example for “doublethink” are the Party’s slogans: WAR IS PEACE, FREEDOM IS SLAVERY, IGNORANCE IS STRENGHT
The population is additionally manipulated through language. War is peace” is one of these methods and it can be explained the following way: The essential act of war is destruction, not of human beings, but of the products of human labour. If these products weren’t destroyed, they could be used to make the masses too comfortable and in the end too intelligent. So the needs of the population are never fulfilled. A further function of war is to keep the citizens frightened and their will to revolt is reduced or abolished. So as long as the Party controls the population in this way, there will be no revolts and that’s what the Party calls peace: “War is peace”.