Dominant approaches to crime prevention Situational – The interventions designed for reducing the opportunity for the crime for occurring in specific time & place which are social and environmental (Clarke, New York) Social Developmental – The interventions designed for preventing the development of the criminal potential in the individuals like targeting at risk children & youth Community – It is modifying or strengthening the behavior of the residents, mobilizing the residents for informally regulating the environment like community development
Policing – The community policing which has increased the relations with the community & problem oriented policing which address the causes of the crime and disorder problems (Braga, 2008) | | | | | | Comparing & Contrasting of Situational, Social Developmental, Community and Policing Approaches Situational prevention
The situational prevention isn’t conceptually new. The persons have presumably always responded to perceive the risks after altering the behaviour for reducing risks. The windows shuttered, doors get locked, dogs purchased & alarm system installed in regard to make the intending the malefactor’s work much difficult. The merchants likewise have presumably always contemplated economic tradeoffs between the easier consumers access for merchandising & heightened the risks of the theft & have reduced the access when that seemed economically rational things for doing (Farrington).
Different about the situational crime prevention is systematic strategic effort of last decade for developing & testing the situational techniques & widespread increasingly recognition that situational approaches may complement the law enforcement approach. Various situational initiatives seem for having achieved net preventive effects, both directly & indirectly via diffusion of the benefits for adjoining the areas which didn’t experience new initiative but were aware of this.
Convincing the evidence is available of the net preventive effects even after the displacement of different types is taken into account. Community Prevention The communities have the crime rates & sometimes these are independent of changing composition over the time of resident population. Put other way around, either individual’s commit crimes mostly is related probabilistically to where they live. It is key insight on which the community crime prevention is premised like changing community can change behaviour of persons who live there (Schneider, 2009).
Community crime prevention included the efforts for controlling the crime after altering building & the neighbourhood design for increasing the natural surveillance & the guardianship, after improving physical appearance of the areas, by organizing the community residents for taking the preventive actions & for soliciting the additional political & material resources & by organizing the self conscious community crime prevention strategy like recreational program for kids. Developmental Prevention Developmental prevention is new frontier of the crime prevention efforts.
May be because kids are much sympathetic recipients of the government attention & funds than are the teenage delinquent & adult criminal, spending, scale of the social programs & research on the kid development exceeds those for the situational or the community prevention (Crime Prevention through Social Development). The interventions aimed at improving life chances of kids at the risk warrant support for the reasons wholly independent of the crime prevention but even to concern the crime prevention emerging findings are promising.
Community Police Approach This approach is based on police community reciprocity; police & public cooperate for preventing & for solving the crimes. The vital premise of this approach is that the police must fight with crime locally rather than the follow dictates from the Washington. The Community policing mostly features the de-centralization of the command via sub-stations for increasing the police citizen interaction. This also involves the foot patrol so the police may walk & talk with the citizens.
The New York City & the other metropolitan areas incorporate into the community policing the zero tolerance attitudes toward the minor crimes & disorder for enhancing the feelings of community The most effective approach Modest claims which may be made for preventive the effectiveness of the sanctions aren’t grounds for despair. Various crimes have various causes, various offenders commit crimes for various reasons & the sensible prevention policies must take account of these differences. For instance, many assaults & sexual crimes are impulsive & committed under influence of the intoxicant & powerful emotion.
Robbery mostly involves planning on the other hand the shop lifting & vandalism is mostly spurred of the moment activities. Few offenses occur as the anomalous act in normally law abiding lives on the other hand others occur as the daily events in normally antisocial lives. The effective crime prevention should be as different & shaped for taking account of vital differences in the crimes & criminals. Diversity of the crimes & criminals is a reason why the law enforcement is the essential but not enough strategy for the crime prevention.
The crimes of emotion, impulse & intoxication & crimes by the individuals socialized into the deviance aren’t likely for being more affected by the law enforcement threats & criminal justice process. The comprehensive governmental crime prevention strategy, in addition to law enforcement, must include the developmental, community, policing and situational approaches. The evidence of effectiveness of the community prevention is less convincing than the situational, the policing or the developmental prevention.
Community policing is best approach to fight the crime in residential neighbourhoods. Conclusion The aim of this paper is to compare & contrast current dominant approaches for crime prevention. In this we examine the dominant approaches such as situational, social development, community crime prevention, and community policing used by three components of criminal justice system like law enforcement, courts, and corrections, for the prevention of crime and also describe about that which approaches is most effective.
References Braga, A. A. (2008). PROBLEM-ORIENTED POLICING AND CRIME PREVENTION. New York, U. S. A: Criminal Justice Press. Clarke, R. V. (New York). Situational Crime Prevention. 1997: Harrow and Heston. Crime Prevention through Social Development. (n. d. ). Retrieved June 21th, 2011, from http://www. prevention-commerce. com: http://www. prevention-commerce. com/pcepr. asp Farrington, M. T. Strategic Approaches to Crime Prevention. The University of Chicago Press. Schneider, S. (2009). Crime Prevention. CRC Press.