A Balance Between Nomothetic and Idiographic Approaches Essay

Published: 2021-06-20 23:45:05
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The idiographic and nomothetic attacks in psychological science are frequently regarded as stand foring opposing and conflicting places about how best to analyze people. particularly intelligence and personality. However. the two may be seen as complementary. with both necessary to derive a Fuller apprehension of human existences. The idiographic attack focuses on: ‘the person and recognises the singularity of the individual in footings of their experiences. feelings. developmental history. aspirations and motives in life. and the values and moral codifications by which they live’ . The word idiograph comes from the Grecian word idios. intending ‘own’ or ‘private’ .
Therefore the idiographic attack in psychological science is concerned with the private. subjective and alone facets of a individual and employs methods of enquiry which provide information about subjective experiences. The idiographic attack is characterised by qualitative methods of probe. Qualitative methods include unstructured interviews. instance surveies. self study steps. self-contemplation. and the psychoanalytic techniques of free association and dream analysis. The idiographic attacks is holistic and places great value on the individual’s witting experiences.
The humanistic position in psychological science possibly best exemplifies the idiographic attack. Freudian depth psychology can besides be said to follow an idiographic attack as he did non utilize any scientific method to prove or happen grounds for his theoretical claims. Approach The nomothetic attack in psychological science focal points on: ‘similarities between people and efforts to set up general Torahs of behavior and thought that can be applied to big populations of people. or so to all people’ The word nomothetic comes from Grecian words nomos. intending ‘law’ .
Hence. the nomothetic attack is most closely aligned with the scientific attacks in psychological science. This means that it uses scientific methods of probe. peculiarly experiments. to prove hypotheses that are derived from theories about human behavior and idea. The nomothetic attack adopts a reductionist point of view. puting great value on objectiveness and reproduction. The behaviorist. cognitive ad biological positions best exemplify the nomothetic attack. Freudian theory besides attempts to set up Torahs or regulations about human existences. for illustration the psychosexual phases and the Oedipus composite.
Freud believed these were applicable to all and the theory is nomothetic in this regard. Background Humanistic psychological science adopt a more idiographic attack. seeking the more alone facets of persons. instead than bring forthing generalized Torahs of behavior that apply to everyone. It highlighted the value of more individualistic and idiographic methods of survey. peculiarly in countries of personality and abnormalcies. Categorization manuals like the DSM-IV. which lists the indispensable behavioral standards of naming autism. adopts a nomothetic attack and classify people harmonizing to peculiar type of upsets.
Traditionally. the idiographic and nomothetic attacks are seen as conflicting. with the deduction that as a psychologist you can merely run from one of these places. Cronbach ( 1957 ) identified this possible beginning of struggle between psychologists about how best to analyze the nature of what it is to be human. If the psychologist seeks to develop theories that apply to big populations so the nomothetic attack is preferred. If. nevertheless. the psychologist is interested in the singularity of a individual. so the idiographic attack is the 1 to follow.
Subjective experience The idiographic attack is frequently regarded as non-scientific. as subjective experience can non be through empirical observation tested and it is hard to generalize from elaborate subjective cognition about a individual. Some psychologists argue that scientific rules can be applied to analyze the singularity of persons and the norms and regulations by which a specific individual operates can be identified. The idiographic attack can be used to analyze subjects such as want which are comparatively rare and depends upon the fortunes environing the person.
Most grounds for effects of want has come from instance surveies of kids who have been raised in conditions of disregard. The instance of Genie ( Curtiss. 1977 ) suggests that terrible want has lasting effects. At the age of 13 old ages she was unable to talk. physically developing and showed inappropriate emotional responses. Despite furthering and rational stimulation. Genie seemingly ne’er recovered from her old ages of want. although there was a suggestion that other factors may hold contributed to her jobs.
Koluchova’s longitudinal survey followed the long-run development of twin male childs who had suffered terrible want in early childhood showed that kids who have experienced terrible want seem able to get the better of the effects of their early agony with appropriate intervention and attention. As such the nomothetic attack would be unsuitable and unable to garner any information which would lend towards our apprehension of the subject. The two attacks can be complementary as the idiographic attack can cast farther visible radiation on a general jurisprudence of behavior established through a nomothetic attack.
Idiographic research may confute a general jurisprudence of behavior. For illustration nomothetic research supported the thought of a multi-store theoretical account of memory with information fluxing through the STM to LTM. However instance surveies of patients with encephalon harm suggest that the multi-store theoretical account is over-simplified. A patient known as KF suffered encephalon harm following a motorcycle accident. and underwent encephalon surgery. Some old ages subsequently he was found to hold normal LTM storage but an STM capacity of merely two points.
If STM was necessary for the transportation of information to LTM. so KF’s LTM should besides be affected. As a effect. farther theoretical accounts of memory have been proposed and tested. On the other manus. idiographic findings can take to big scale research. Piaget used the idiographic attack deriving rich and elaborate information about the development of his ain children’s thought. These happening inspired further nomothetic research and theories into cognitive development were developed. Scientific attack
Both attacks can lend to the scientific attack – the purpose of scientific discipline are to “understand and describe” which corresponds to the idiographic attack and to “predict and control” which corresponds to the nomothetic attack. The nomothetic attack generalise findings e. g. in footings of the primacy and recentness effects. more words are recalled from the beginning and the terminal of the list. irrespective of the length of the list. However an idiographic attack could be used to happen the different techniques that people have used to remember the points
In modern-day psychological science. the idiographic-nomothetic argument is still an of import differentiation. Attempts have been made to convey the two attacks together in an interactionist theoretical account ( Bandura. 1986 ) . but no influential solution has been found. It could be argued that the strengths of one attack compensate for the restrictions of the other and so both attacks are needed for a complete survey of psychological science. The nomothetic attack has helped psychological science to go scientific by developing Torahs and theories of human behavior that can be through empirical observation tested.
This attack attempts to find Torahs and common features for all people or big groups of people in a civilization. It besides helps to unite biological and societal facets of a individual. However. the focal point on general Torahs and theories neglects the subjective and alone experiences of the individual. The extended usage of controlled research lab experiment means that there is a job of generalization to mundane life. Some psychologists besides argued that this attack overemphasises the similarities between people and gives small attending to differences.
Alternatively. the idiographic attack focuses on the subjective experiences of the individual doing the single feeling valued and alone. Each individual is valued as an person instead than seen as one amongst many. Decision This attack provides elaborate psychohistories and efforts to understand the many influences on how they come to be as they are. Humanist psychological science uses an idiographic attack to enable people to develop their full potency. However. this attack mostly neglects biological. particularly familial influences.

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