A Comparative Analysis Of Solid Waste Environmental Sciences Essay

Published: 2021-07-06 05:30:06
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Category: Environmental Sciences

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Solid wastes are all the wastes originating from human and carnal activities that are usually solid and are discarded as useless or unwanted. ( Tchobanoglous e’tal, 1993 ) . The demand for effectual, sustainable and environmentally friendly solid waste disposal methods is to pull off society ‘s waste in a manner that meets public wellness and environmental concerns and the public involvement to recycle and recycle.
Rapid addition in volume and types of solid waste as a consequence of uninterrupted economic growing, urbanisation and industrialisation, is going an escalating job for states and local authoritiess in the quest to guaranting effectual and sustainable direction of waste. It is estimated that in 2006 entirely, a sum of 2.02 billion tones of municipal solid waste ( MSW ) was generated globally amount bespeaking a 7 % one-year addition since 2003. ( GWMMR ) , 2007 ) . It is once more quantified that between 2007 and 2011, planetary Coevals of municipal waste will lift by 37.3 % , tantamount to approximately 8 % addition per twelvemonth. Based on uncomplete studies from its participants, the Basel convention estimated that about 318 and 338 million dozenss of risky and other waste were generated in 2000 and 2001 severally ( UNEP, 2009 ) .
One of the guiding rules for UK waste direction has been the construct of a hierarchy of waste direction options, where the most desirable option is non to bring forth the waste in the first topographic point and the least desirable option is to dispose of the waste with no recovery of either stuffs and/or energy. Between these two extremes there are a broad assortment of waste intervention options that may be used as portion of a waste direction scheme to retrieve stuffs or bring forth energy from the wastes ( illustration through incineration, or digesting biodegradable wastes to bring forth useable gases ) . Presently more than 62 % of all MSW generated in England is disposed of in landfills. ( DEFRA, 2007 ) .
Waste disposal in Ghana is chiefly by landfilling. The state soon boasts of merely two Sanitary Landfill installations located in Kumasi and Tamale. Two others are under building in Sekondi-Takoradi and Tema. The other metropoliss and towns depend on garbage dumps for their waste disposal. Other systems such as incineration, waste to energy, anaerobiotic digestion, etc have so far remained at explorative phases, with the exclusion of composting which is at the execution phase at Zoomlion ( Agyepong, 2011 ) .
The rapid development of towns and metropoliss has given rise to increased population tied with increasing socio-economic activities. Ghana ‘s, population now standing at 23million, generates about 4.5million metric dozenss of solid waste a twelvemonth. ( Agyepong, 2011 ) .
Research has shown that merely 10 % of solid wastes generated in Ghana are decently disposed of. In the last few old ages jobs with solid waste disposal have assumed increased prominence as a political issue particularly in urban countries. The dismissal of a city manager of the capital metropolis ( Accra ) in 2002 was mostly attributed to his inability to cover with the jobs of waste direction. Based on an estimated population of 18 million and an mean day-to-day waste coevals per capita of 0.45 kilograms, Ghana generates yearly about 3.0 million dozenss of solid waste. Accra, the capital, and Kumasi, the 2nd metropolis, with a combined population of about 4 million and a floating population of about 2.5 million generate over 3,000 dozenss of solid waste daily. ( Mensah and Larbi, 2005, ) .
The day-to-day solid waste coevals in Accra, with an estimated population of about 3.3 million is 1500 dozenss. The measures of waste generated have been increasing quickly and is projected to make dual figures in the non excessively distant hereafter ( EPA, 2002, cited in Mamley, 2010, p.1 ) . As in most underdeveloped metropoliss, solid waste in Accra has a high decayable organic content. The organic fraction is made up of kitchen waste including nutrient leftovers, icky fruits, veggies, foliages, harvest residues, carnal body waste and castanetss ( Asomani-Boateng and Haight, 1999 cited in Mamley, 2010, p.1 ) .
Plastics, glass, metals and paper history for less than 15 % of entire waste. High organic and wet contents coupled with prevalent high temperatures necessitate frequent remotions, which place extra load on an overstrained aggregation system. ( Mamley, 2010, p.1 ) . It is acknowledged that a batch of difficult work has been done by old research workers in the countries of solid waste disposal ; hitherto, a comparative analysis of this subject between Ghana and the UK is the research gap the author seeks to try to bridge.
The Research Problem
The jobs associated with solid waste disposal in Ghana mostly relate to ;
Problems associated with indiscriminate dumping/fly-tipping ;
Increasing troubles with geting suited disposal sites ;
Troubles with transit of solid waste by route due to increasing traffic jobs and the deficiency of alternate path options ;
Lack in modern operable methods of solid waste disposal
Lack of committedness on the portion of the authoritiess to perpetrate sufficient fiscal resource to place environmentally friendly methods.
Trouble in accessing domestic waste from places due to miss of hapless community planning.
Over dependent on landfill as the lone method of solid waste disposal.
Research Aim and Aims
The Aim of the Research
The general Aim of this research is to look into or analyze sustainable and environmentally acceptable methods of waste disposal in Ghana and the UK and comparing the result the two states.
The Aims of the Research
The undermentioned aims are formulated in order to reply the above research inquiries ;
To look into landfill as a solid waste disposal method.
To analyze incineration as a solid waste disposal method.
To analyze composting, recycle and reuse as a solid waste disposal method.
The purposes and nonsubjective stated above will be investigated utilizing merely secondary informations for the intent of this research.
Relevance of Research
The significance of the research can non be underestimated. It will supply a utile usher to policy shapers in choosing the most efficient and effectual method of solid waste disposal in the state as a whole. And besides organize the footing for comparing in taking sustainable solid waste disposal method for a peculiar state of affairs.
This research seeks to look into solid waste disposal methods in general, analysing and comparing the adopted methods and how it is pattern in Ghana and the United Kingdom. The relevancy of the research is as follows:
Academia
Additions in the stock of utile cognition
Enhancement of job resolution capacity
Supply of skilled alumnus and research workers
Policy preparation.
Creation of new scientific instrumentality and methodological analysiss
Creation of new houses
Industry
Change in attack to making things
Designation and creative activity of new section
Realization of possible concern chances
Social benefit
Provision of general cognition
Research Programme
Item No.
Key Task / Activities
Target Date
Advancement
01
Research Title
Choice of Research Topic
10th June, 2012
Done
Milestone
9th June, 2012
Done
02
Research Proposal
Development of Research Topic to Research Proposal
17th July, 2012
Done
03
Draft Report
Development of the lineation of the study and first two chapters and entry.
6th September, 2012
In-progress
Milestone
3th September, 2012
Literature reappraisal
1st -30th September,2012
04
Literature reappraisal
Literature reappraisal
thirtieth September, 2012
05
Literature reappraisal
Literature reappraisal
18th October, 2012
06
Drumhead decision and recommendation
fifteenth November, 2012
07
Final Research Report
Submission of Final Report
15th -30th November, 2012
Milestone
twenty-fifth November, 2012
TION AT THE UN CONFER

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