1879 1890

Published: 2021-06-21 15:15:03
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HENRIK IBSEN’S A DOLL’S HOUSE & HEDDA GABLERCONTENTSCONTENTS SECTION………………………. SEARCH ONTHE AUTHOR AND HIS TIMES……………………….. IDOLAUTHA Doll’s HouseTHE PLAYThe Plot…………………………………… IDOLPLOTThe Characters……………………………… IDOLCHAROther Elements Setting……………………………….. IDOLSETTThemes………………………………… IDOLTHEMStyle…………………………………. IDOLSTYLForm and Structure……………………… IDOLFORMTHE STORY………………………………….. IDOLSTORA STEP BEYONDTest and Answers……………………………. IDOLTESTTerm Paper Ideas and other Topics for Writing….. IDOLTERMHedda Gabler THE PLAYThe Plot…………………………………… IHEDPLOTThe Characters……………………………… IHEDCHAROther Elements Setting……………………………….. IHEDSETTThemes………………………………… IHEDTHEMStyle…………………………………. IHEDSTYLForm and Structure……………………… IHEDFORMTHE STORY………………………………….. IHEDSTORA STEP BEYONDTest and Answers……………………………. IHEDTESTTerm Paper Ideas and other Topics for Writing….. IHEDTERMA DOLL’S HOUSE AND HEDDA GABLER The Critics………………………………… IDOLCRITAdvisory Board……………………………… IDOLADVBBibliography……………………………….. IDOLBIBLAUTHOR_AND_HIS_TIMES THE AUTHOR AND HIS TIMES (IDOLAUTH)-On a chilly April day in 1864, Henrik Ibsen arrived at the docksin the Norwegian capital of Oslo (then called Christiania). The young man was a failure. The theater he’d run had closed, and noneof his own plays were successful. He had a wife and a young son tosupport, but all his possessions had been auctioned off two yearsbefore to pay his debts. He’d applied for a grant from his nativecountry, Norway, but was turned down.Disillusioned by his country and society, Ibsen, together with his wife and son, boarded a ship and left Norway, figuratively slammingthe door behind him.Fifteen years later, a similarly disillusioned Nora Helmer wouldslam the door on stage at the end of A Doll’s House, helping to changethe course of modern drama.Ibsen had become disillusioned very early. In 1836, when he waseight years old, his wealthy parents went bankrupt. They were forced to move from town to a small farm. All of their old friends deserted them, and they lived for years in social disgrace. Although youngHenrik appeared quiet and withdrawn, his deep, bitter anger at societywould occasionally escape in the scathing caricatures he would draw orin tirades against young playmates. His sole happiness seemed tocome from reading books and putting on puppet plays. Ibsen didn’t like his own family any more than he liked the “proper”society that shunned them. His domineering father was an alcoholic,while his quiet mother found comfort in religion. This blend of overbearing husband and submissive wife makes repeated appearancesin his plays, most notably in Brand, in A Doll’s House, and in Ghosts,After he left his parents’ home at sixteen in 1844, he never wentback, even years later when he got word that his mother was dying.Hoping eventually to study medicine, Ibsen became a druggist’sapprentice in Grimstad, a small Norwegian village. But he still felt like an outsider, a feeling that would dog him all his life and find expression in many of his plays. (It didn’t help his social standing when he fathered an illegitimate son by a servant girl ten years olderthan he. Some feel that it was this unwanted child that reappears in many of his plays as a lost or murdered child. In A Doll’s House,the nursemaid gives away her illegitimate child.) But Ibsen found he wasn’t alone in his contempt for those who controlled society. Hebecame friends with a boisterous group of young artists whospecialized in political satire.By 1848, a spirit of political unrest was sweeping Europe.Rebellions against monarchy flared in many countries. This spirit of revolution was intoxicating for Ibsen and his friends. Royalty andaristocracy seemed on their way out; the people were coming into theirown. Two years later, Ibsen moved to Oslo to attend the university butfailed to complete the entrance examinations. He was so caught up in politics and writing, however, that he really didn’t care. Afterall, modern society seemed to be at a crossroads, and the world offered infinite possibilities.But things began to go wrong. The revolutions of 1848 faltered and finally were crushed. Artists and politicians alike lost their idealism. The world of infinite possibilities didn’t really exist.Years later, Ibsen would use the experiences of this period in hisplays. Certain of his characters (like Nora in A Doll’s House andLovborg and

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