This historic site is situated to the North and West of Middleton and positioned on National Grid with mention SD420590 ( Semple, 2013 as cited in Atkins, 2000 ) . It is about 2km south-east of Heysham and occupies an sweep of 116 hectare. The site was built and managed as a joint undertaking between Trinidad Lake Asphalt, Imperial Chemical Industries ( ICI ) and Shell to bring forth air power fuel during the World War II after which it was closed down in 1945 ( CSM ) . It became operational once more in 1948 under the ownership of Shell and ICI with a reform in its production techniques and with the debut of new chemicals ( CSM ) . The chief refinery operations and chemical productions closed down in the 1970s and the site became creaky and has been decommissioned. The lone finger prints discernible in the site is the operations of SRM limited once Solrec Limited who are in to solvent refinery and recovery ( CSM ) .
The site is considered in two basic countries for the intent of this study. These are the Main Refinery Area ( MRA ) and Final Production Tank Farm ( FPTF ) . The chief refinery country includes all the land ab initio occupied by the refinery, located to the West of Middleton Road and an extension which is assumed non to hold been occupied by the refinery. The Northern portion of the site was purchased by Solrec Limited in1975 while the Lancaster City Council has the ownership of the cardinal and south-western parts ( CSM ) .
The Final Production Tank Farm ( FPTF ) is situated between the railroad passageway to the E and Middleton route to the West and contains four giant armored combat vehicles buried within the locality of back uping edifices and parts of the undeveloped land. At present, the Lancaster City Council is the known proprietor of the two storage armored combat vehicles in the northern most portion while the two other storage armored combat vehicles and the staying portion of the FPTF in the furthermost south towards the railroad passageway are thought to be owned by Middleton Business Park Ltd ( CSM ) .
The site has its cardinal portion lying level with a lifting land to the E in the way of Middleton Road and Trimpell Tip and to the West near Whittam Hill. The site is elevated in both the northern and southern parts compared to the cardinal portion which is low-lying with the furthermost southern portion of the site holding a lower topography than the cardinal portion ( CSM ) . Over these old ages, the site topography and land lift has changed because of dumping activities including inert waste stuffs in some parts of the site ( CSM ) . This is documented in the study and was besides observed during the site reconnaissance visit.
In the operational old ages of the refinery, gasolene was stored in armored combat vehicles at the Bankss of Heysham and was conveyed to the armored combat vehicles on Whittam Hill for refinery usage. The conveyance relied on gravitation and supported by the topography ( CSM ) .
The refinery operation stopped after the World War II and restarted in 1948 with the polish of petroleum to bring forth gas oil, fuel oil, gasolene and butane ( CSM ) . Sulphur was removed from the petroleum at the Hower Baker Plant perchance by transition to hydrogen sulfide and absorbed into an alkalic solution in the acerb sodium carbonate works ( CSM ) . Knowledge of recovery of sulfur or the sulfide is missing.
The catalytic snap procedure introduced rancid H2O condensate which was likely to incorporate H sulfide, ammonium hydroxide, phenol and some other hydrocarbons. Knowledge of the destiny of the rancid H2O produced is missing. Mercaptan, an intermediate merchandise would perchance hold been removed by the usage of sulfuric acid or Na hydrated oxide during production of gasolene in a procedure of dulcifying. This could be by transition of mercaptan to disulphide ( CSM ) .
Ammonia was produced in the chief refinery site in the ammonium hydroxide stables. Possible byproducts of this procedure are coal pitchs and ammonium hydroxide. Hydrogen used in ammonia production was produced in a H2O gas works. The residues of this procedure were carbon dioxide and C monoxide which were removed by brushing with acerb sodium carbonate and injection with Cu spirits severally. Methanol was produced and was stored in ICI merchandise armored combat vehicles thought to hold been antecedently used to hive away crude oil. This fabrication technique stopped and methane was produced by the add-on of high temperature steam to blow oil obtained from Shell production activities.
ICI went in to fabrication of insulating board after the war utilizing isocyante procedure and asbestos was thought to hold been used in the procedure. Insulation board production was continued by Kingspan Insulation and Coolag Limited after ICI left. Knowledge of their fabrication inside informations is missing.
Besides within the locality of the site is Trimpell Tip where waste from the refinery and nitrates treating such as incinerator residues, domestic and commercial waste, potentially combustible substances and inert stuffs were disposed.
HIGHLIGHTS OF PHASE I
The procedure of contaminated land direction as described in contaminated land study 11 ( CLR II ) falls within three paradigms. These are hazard appraisal, option assessment and execution of the redress scheme. The stage I probe aims to specify the intent of the probe, place arrears of concern and to polish a preliminary conceptual site theoretical account utilizing available information ( CLR II ) . This is achieved by collating and measuring desktop information, site reconnaissance study and perchance interview from people who have historical or current information of the site. In making this, all the information gathered would be needed to build a conceptual site theoretical account that takes in to cognizance all contaminant beginnings, tracts and receptors or possible receptors.
The study documented in stage I probe ( CSM ) has identified countries of concern which is a major aim of the initial environmental site appraisal. This includes the refinery country and the concluding production armored combat vehicle farm. The study makes known the historical sequence of events that have taken topographic point in the site from agricultural usage which preceded the refinery to its current derelict province. The study besides describes the site & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s environmental puting including the topography and geology.
DATA GAPS AND LIMITATIONS
The study from the scoping survey of the stage I probe provides basic information about the site including site history and description, geology and a scope of production activities that took topographic point at the site. However, there are uncertainnesss and rawness on cognition of certain historic activities and operations that took topographic point at the site. The most marked restriction in the site scoping survey is the deficiency of cognition of the precise locations where certain operational activities were carried and cognition of the extent of pollution impacted on the site by ground of those activities. Report shows that some locations of historic installations ( constructions ) have been identified while some are yet to be traced. Example is the belowground armored combat vehicles whose locations are yet to be determined. Knowledge of some belowground public-service corporations is missing such as piping and cloaca system and accordingly their pollution or contaminant linkage is non ascertained. Other noteworthy information includes:
The historic processing and fabrication countries have been identified but there are losing information in the stage I report sing the disposal and destiny of most of the chemicals used in the fabrication and processing operations.
The countries of concern have been identified but contaminant releases and migration mechanisms are yet to be determined.
The site geology such as topographical characteristics is known but knowledge of its hydrology, hydrogeology, drainage paths, way of land H2O flow is non known.
Contaminants of concern have been identified but whether release has occurred at the countries of concern is yet to be identified.
Information is missing on the background concentrations of the site as this would be a parametric quantity to see during redress procedures.
Because of the spread and restrictions in information from the stage I report, the demand arises to suggest and develop a stage II site probe and conceptual theoretical account which would be used to make full the losing spreads or information.
OBJECTIVES OF PHASE II
The intent of stage II probe is to draw together adequate information to find if release has occurred at each country of concern identified or non ( CDEP, 2010 ) . A release is established to hold occurred if concentrations of contaminations of concern detected exceed the bounds stated in the sensible assurance protocol ( CDEP, 2010 ) . In this phase, consideration will be given to both environmental scene and possible receptors. The site scoping survey shows a possible presence of a broad array of contaminations generated from refinery or petrochemical operations, fertiliser plants, railroad draw and asbestos fabrication related procedure. The possible receptors of concern for these contaminations are worlds, zoologies, vegetations, controlled Waterss and ecological receptors. From the stage I study, a figure of important pollution linkages have been identified with most of them being likely and possible pollution linkages. A complete tract exists between contamination beginnings and the site drainage ( CSM ) . This tract is complete through discharge of site surface H2O run-off to the Morecambe Bay which is the ecological receptor.
The stage I report recognizes a likely important pollutant linkage through volatile emanation, dust coevals, direct contact to substructure, zoology and human wellness. Besides, probably to be is a important linkage in which land H2O or surface H2O could make deeper groundwater in the aquifer.
For the concluding production armored combat vehicle farm no important pollution linkage was identified. Noteworthy that the armored combat vehicles were sealed off during decommissioning and such suggests no important linkage. However, a likely pollutant linkage has been demonstrated to be between shallow groundwater and the site drainage system ( CSM ) . There is likely being of a tract from groundwater and contaminated dirt through dust coevals, volatile emanation and direct contact to substructure, zoology and human wellness.
Table 1: List of possible contaminations to be found on the site
Class of chemical
CONCEPTUAL SITE MODEL AND PHASE II INVESTIGATION
Identified Potential Areas of Concern ( Potential Sources )
Potential Release Mechanism ( Potential Migration Pathway )
Expected Release Locations Suitable for Sampling and Analysis for Phase II Investigation.
Underground storage armored combat vehicles
Tank leaks, over fills, Piping, valve, and dispenser leaks.
I ) For likely armored combat vehicle leaks, the implicit in dirt at the border of the armored combat vehicle and sidewall can be sampled.
II ) For over fills, sample aggregation should be underneath the armored combat vehicle or vent pipes at the low prevarication or by the aslant country.
II ) For shrieking and valves, trying should be along the pipes, pipe articulations, and the locality of the valves.
Leaching, from the vadose zone through the periphery capillary in to the belowground aquifer.
Sampling Wellss should be bore at the lowest lying country of the site, from the site geology ; the cardinal and southern parts are the lowest lying countries, so trying should be carried out within that country. Permanent or impermanent Wellss could be installed. A impermanent well enables the sensing of contaminant release while lasting good enables to supervise the land H2O flow and the effects of season and tides on the destiny of contaminations.
Leaks, debasement and leaching.
Within, beneath, down incline within the locality of the tip.
Delivery and Loading countries
Spills and leaks
Cracks on the asphalt or motor manner support. If there are no cellar where clefts could be found, so countries with sparse flora which are discernible within the locality of concern.
Fire service H2O dike
It could be a reservoir or sink for an array of contaminations which seep into it. It can leach downwards or the debasement merchandises may prevail and can besides be remobilized into the environing environment.
Beneath, next to the dike.
Bequest construction ( edifice ) which are fingerprints of the staying in the site.
Spills, volatile emanation and depositions.
Cracks on walls and floors, articulations between the edifice roofing, wall and floors.
Main refinery & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s drainage system
Migration, leaching to belowground H2O.
Belowground H2O or dirt nucleus.
Release from solvent recovery and refinery works. Spills and leaks.
Dirt within the locality of works, H2O sample from the low lying terrain of the site
Gasoline storage armored combat vehicles on Whittam Hill.
Leaks, spills from over fills
Adjacent and implicit in dirt.
The restrictions and spreads of the stage I study suggest the demand for more site question through trying to determine the presence of contaminations at the countries of concern. The trying attack to be used will be more direct based on the information that has been obtained from stage I on the peculiar countries of concern. In add-on, the informations quality aim is really of import in planing a trying protocol needed to accomplish site specific aims.
The designation of a likely pollutant linkage for land H2O or surface H2O ooze into deeper groundwater necessitates a sampling protocol for groundwater. Besides, land H2O sampling is an incorporate sample which is representative of more spacial zone. This is because of consequence of several environmental system including the unsaturated dirt, capillary periphery and aquifer components on the belowground H2O ( USEPA, 1995 ) .
Table 3: Proposed trying locations, figure of dirt samples and lasting monitoring Wellss to be installed for belowground H2O sampling.
Number of samples
Number of Wellss
Main Refinery Area
Concluding Production Tank Farm.
Up Gradient of the site ( North ) .
Mid-point ( Low lying Central Area )
Down gradient ( South )
Solrec Recovery Plant Site
Slope down side of Timprell Tip.
Outside Area of Concern ( Background sample )
The aggregation of samples at each of the designated country of concern should be near adequate to be representative of the country. Monitoring Wellss designed with screened intervals stoping the saturated zone at the upper part are suited for measuring the happening of release to the land H2O. Consideration of the site geology such as the length at which release is expected to happen, groundwater flow way and conveyance features of the possible contamination of concern should be made before trying ( USEPA, 1995 ) . A individual land H2O trying event may non be sufficient to set up a release, so multiple sampling or lasting Wellss are proposed for complementary intent.
With this strategic agreement of dullard holes, it would be possible to obtain land H2O which could be interrogated for non-aqueous stage liquid, oily sheen and samples for research lab analysis to cognize if there is organic or inorganic contaminations in the H2O sample. The observation of high or low pH solution would be implicative to alterations in natural position of the aquifer which could ease the mobilisation of contaminations of concern.
Soil Sampling and Analysis
A dirt trying plan is being proposed holding identified a likely important pollutant linkage through volatile emanation, dust coevals, direct contact to human wellness, zoology and substructure. The object of this is to set up if there is a complete tract for the beginning emanation to make the receptors. This would affect sampling and analyzing nucleus dirt samples from designated mark countries so as to better qualify the site. A proficient prejudice or judgemental sampling would be used since information has been known about the countries of concern. Sampling can besides be carried out for clefts on the walls of bequest constructions present on site to uncover the presence of contaminations.
Table 4: Proposed trying locations, figure of samples and trying zones or deepness.
No of Samples
Main Refinery Area
Concluding Production Tank Farm.
Surficial and Saturated
Slope down side of Timprell Tip
Gasoline storage armored combat vehicles on Whittam Hill.
Surficial and Saturated zone
Underground storage armored combat vehicles
Outside the country of concern ( background sample )
Surficial and concentrated zones.
The surficial sample which be able to observe if a release has occurred or non but a concentrated sample would be representative of an incorporate sample affected by the environmental quality of tremendous zones of unsaturated dirt, capillary periphery and aquifer stuff. The analysis of the samples should be judgmental for cost effectivity. Because the contaminations of concern have been identified in the preliminary site probe, there would less necessitate for a wide spectrum of analytical parametric quantities alternatively ; analysis should be streamlined to the identified contaminations of concern which are largely petroleum based organic contaminations and a few inorganics. Soil nucleus samples can be observed for non-aqueous stage liquid in sample which normally have characteristic black dint. Detection of organic contaminations in the analysed samples above background concentration or within the sensible assurance protocol would intend the empirical verification that a release has occurred. Noteworthy that boring fluid that could pollute the well should non be used as non to hold false positives and the environmental professional has to show that any taint observed is non unreal but represents the site taint province. The happening would be implicative of a important pollution tract.