Accepted Papers

  • Fractal Analysis of Good Programming Style
    Ron Coleman and Pritesh Gandhi,Marist College,USA
    ABSTRACT
    This paper studies a new, quantitative approach using fractal geometry to analyse basic tenets of good programming style. Experiments on C source of the GNU/Linux Core Utilities, a collection of 114 programs or approximately 70,000 lines of code, show systematic changes in style are correlated with statistically significant changes in fractal dimension (P≤0.0009). The data further show positive but weak correlation between lines of code and fractal dimension (r=0.0878). These results suggest the fractal dimension is a reliable metric of changes that affect good style, the knowledge of which may be useful for maintaining a code base.
  • Improvised Inference Detection System For Statistical Database Security
    Adarsh Dinesh,Dipin N.D and Greeshma Sarath,Amrita School of Engineering,India
    ABSTRACT
    SDB (Statistical Database) are those databases containing typical statistical information but not permitting queries to reveal data specific to a particular individual or event.The inference problem is a subtle vulnerability in statistical databases by which malicious users can infer sensitive information from series of data that may be easily available to them. Most of the statistical databases are designed in such a way that the users can access only aggregate data, not individual records. Modern inference detection systems do this with the help of Bayesian networks which makes the system complex and increase the overhead. Thus we are improvising an inference detection mechanism which uses Bayesian network to protect sensitive data content with reduced overhead. For a single user case when a user passes a query, the detection system will examine his/her past query log and possible attacks are detected.The inference can also happen when multiple users collaborate together to effectively infer a sensitive data. We also avoid this special case with this detection system. By this paper we are introducing an efficient Inference detection system which uses Pearson’s chi-squared test and blacklisted-query cache to reduce the overhead.
  • A Novel System for Document Classification Using Genetic Programming
    Saad M. Darwish Adel A. El-Zoghabi and Doaa B. Ebaid,Alexandria University,Egypt
    ABSTRACT
    According to the rapid growth of the online textual data, automatic document classification become a necessary for management. Document classification assigns a document to one class from a set of predefined classes. Foremost challenge in the document classification is achieving high accuracy. The variety of datasets places both efficiency and accuracy depends on classification systems. The majority of classification techniques deal with the multi-class classification as two-class classification. In this paper, a document classification model is proposed using genetic programming based on multi-tree representation that allows classifying documents belong to more than two categories (multi-class classification) at the same time and in a single run. The proposed model combines multi-objective technique with genetic programming (NSGA-II) to improve the classification accuracy. Empirical evaluations show encouraging results and the proposed model is feasible and effective.
  • Distributed Computation of Connected Dominating Set for Multi hop Wireless Networks
    Simi S and Sreelakshmy Vijayan,Amrita University, India
    ABSTRACT
    In large wireless ad hoc networks, routing is a main issue as they include many nodes that span over relatively a large area. In such a scenario, finding smallest set of efficient routes would be a good approach for better communication. Algorithms that have been implemented in this area were found to be with higher message passing complexity and they were concerned only about the size of the Connected Dominating Set. This paper discusses the design and implementation of a distributed algorithm to compute connected dominating sets in a wireless network with less message complexity. The algorithm has been applied on networks with different network sizes and varying edge probability distributions. The algorithm outputs 40 % important nodes in the network to form back haul communication links with an approximation ratio ≤ 0.04 * ∂ + 1, where ∂ is the maximum node degree. The results confirm that the algorithm contributes to a better performance with reduced message complexity.
  • Improved Stereo Vision Algorithm and Its FGPA Implementation Using Cost Aggregation and Disparity Inheritance
    Binoy Bhanujan P and R. K. Sharma,National Institute of Technology,India
    ABSTRACT
    Stereo Vision is an actively researched topic in image processing. The goal is to recover quantitative depth information from a set of input images, based on the visual disparity between corresponding points. Algorithms used for stereo matching are mainly based on pixels. In this paper a similar stereo vision algorithm using Cost Aggregation (CA), occlusion detection and disparity inheritance refinement is proposed. CA employs the Winner-Takes-All (WTA) strategy using non-parametric stereo correlation methods, such as the sum of absolute difference and mini-census transform, to extract the initial disparity maps. The disparity maps produced helps to identify the occluded points which acts as the control points for the disparity refinement algorithm. The disparity inheritance is a disparity refinement method which further improves the accuracy and robustness of stereo correspondence. The same algorithm is implemented in FPGA, evaluated using Middlebury stereo dataset, and results are found to be competitive against existing algorithms.
  • An Enhanced MEIT Approach For Itemset Mining Using Levelwise Pruning
    Tanvi P. Patel and Warish D. Patel,Parul Institute of Technology, India
    ABSTRACT
    Association rule mining forms the core of data mining and it is termed as one of the well-known methodologies of data mining. Objectives of mining is to find interesting correlations, frequent patterns, associations or casual structures among sets of items in the transaction databases or other data repositories. Hence, Association rule mining is imperative to mine patterns and then generate rules from these obtained patterns. For efficient targeted query processing, finding frequent patterns and itemset mining, there is an efficient way to generate an itemset tree structure named Memory Efficient Itemset Tree. Memory efficient IT is efficient for storing itemsets, but takes more time as compare to traditional IT. The proposed strategy generates maximal frequent itemsets from memory efficient itemset tree by using levelwise pruning. For that firstly pre-pruning of items based on minimum support count is carried out followed by itemset tree reconstruction. By having maximal frequent itemsets, less number of patterns are generated as well as tree size is also reduced as compared to MEIT. Therefore, an enhanced approach of memory efficient IT proposed here, helps to optimize Main memory overhead as well as reduce processing time.
  • Enhancing QOS By Adapting Data Flow Rates In Wireless Networks Using Hierarchical Docition
    Simi S and Sruthi Ann Varghese,Amrita University, India
    ABSTRACT
    Wireless network finds application in military environments, emergency, rescue operations and medical monitoring due to its self-configuring nature. As the availability of resources such as processing power, buffer capacity and energy are limited in wireless networks; it is required to devise efficient algorithm for packet forwarding. Due to the dynamic nature of the wireless environment, the traditional packet forwarding strategies cannot guarantee good network performance every time. This paper proposes a method for data flow rate adaptation in wireless network to improve quality of service in the network. Each node in the network learns the environment using reinforcement learning approach and selects appropriate neighbors for packet forwarding. In order to improve the learning capacity of nodes, the hierarchical docition technique is employed. Docition applied to each layer of network, which selects a set of special nodes which has more information about the environment and share this information with less informative nodes. The algorithm is tested in a geographical routing protocol and the results indicate improved network performance.
  • The Impact of Using Project Management Software in Kingdom of Bahrain
    Sarmad Mohammad,ITC- AOU,Kingdom of Bahrain
    ABSTRACT
    Arab Open University conducted an online survey to determine the degree of usage for specific project management software to develop and enhance the project management process in Kingdom of Bahrain. The main purpose of this study is to find out new way to make the use of project management more effective and efficient as possible. It’s started with overview of the framework of project management and the current way to deal with project. A SWOT analysis conducted to find out the weak point in the current process; to check for the chance of enhancement and “opportunity” to empower the current strength and to construct an effective metrics for these significant issues of software implementation. The problem mainly stated that the users of project management software not take the full advantage of the information technology which raises the questions: how much users rely on the project management software and degree to measure user’s satisfaction with the current project management software.
  • An Analysis on Road Extraction from Satellite Image Using Otsu Method and Genetic Algorithm Techniques
    T.Ganesh Kumar,D.Murugan Manish T.I,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University,India
    ABSTRACT
    Image segmentation is extensively used in face recognition, fingerprint matching, medical image processing and image processing applications, particularly to locate objects in the satellite images. Road extraction from satellite or aerial imagery is a popular topic in remote sensing, and there are many road extraction algorithms suggested by various researches. However, the need of reliable remotely sensed road information still persists as there is no sufficiently robust road extraction algorithm yet. This paper presents a road extraction problem based on Otsu Thresholding and Genetic Algorithm based segmentation. The empirical evaluation of the two algorithms suggests that the GA algorithm is capable of extracting majority of the road network, and it poses promising performance results.
  • Integrating Document Workflow Management System in the Business Processes at the Botswana Ministry of Trade and Industry
    Kelvin Joseph Bwalya1 and Olefhile Mosweu 2,1University of Johannesburg,Johanneshburg and 2Ministry of Education and Skills Development,Johanneshburg
    ABSTRACT
    With a quest to automate and improve the efficiency of trade co-ordination, the Botswana’s Ministry of Trade and Industry (MTI) introduced an Electronic Document and Records Management System (EDRMS). The EDRMS in this particular context is the Document Workflow Management System (DWMS) whose focus is to manage the timely and effervescent processing of documents. In order to successfully integrate the EDRMS into everyday business processes, there is need to understand the cardinal factors that influence adoption and uptake of the DWMS by the Record Officers, Action Officers and all the people who are involved in the document management value chains at MTI. This is not to ascertain that other non-individual factors such as organisation context are less important in influencing successful integration of DWMS into business processes. Using the modified Unified Theory of Acceptance and use of Technology (UTAUT) as a theoretical framework, this paper presents findings from a research which aimed to investigate the factors influencing adoption and usage of the DWMS and therefore its integration into the MTI’s everyday business processes. Largely supplemented by an interpretivist paradigm, this research is largely positivist. With a response rate of 86.7%, this research utilised a census survey approach and used a questionnaire as the main data collection instrument. Four major constructs from the UTAUT model accounted for the 55% variance in explaining behavioural intention to adopt DWMS. This research espoused that contextual setting (organisational and individual) influences the uptake and adoption of DWMS and therefore proposes a conceptual adoption framework which can further guide theory and practice.
  • A New Cryptosystem with Four Levels of Encryption and Parallel Programming
    Parag A. Guruji,College of Engineering Sangli,India
    ABSTRACT
    Evolution in the communication systems has changed the paradigm of human life on this planet. The growing network facilities for the masses have converted this world to a village (or may be even smaller entity of human accommodation) in a sense that every part of the world is reachable for everyone in almost no time. But this fact is also not an exception for coins having two sides. With increasing use of communication networks the various threats to the privacy, integrity and confidentiality of the data sent over the network are also increasing, demanding the newer and newer security measures to be implied. The ancient techniques of coded messages are imitated in terms of new software environments under the domain of cryptography. The cryptosystems provide a means for the secured transmission of data over an unsecured channel by providing encoding and decoding functionalities. This paper proposes a new cryptosystem based on four levels of encryption. The system is suitable for communication within the trusted groups.

  • Developing A Framework Based On Service Oriented Architecture For COBIT Governance Maturity Model
    Mojgan Dehghani and Sima Emadi,, Islamic Azad University, Iran
    ABSTRACT
    Todays, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is one of the most important organizational mechanisms to align IT with organization business and is a powerful tool for organizing complex information systems. Having the benefits of SOA governance is effective when there is effective governance. SOA Governance Maturity models are valid and effective tools for effective governance on SOA So that organizations can use this tool to evaluate the current state of their governance, determine their requirements and then provide a suitable framework for their governance. So far, different models of governance maturity has been proposed which COBIT governance maturity model is considered as an index sample due to its suitability, however, this framework is often used to measure the maturity of the IT governance framework. In fact, one of the challenges for the application of this framework is lack of an approach for evaluating SOA governance maturity. In this study, a four dimensional framework is proposed based on SOA for COBIT governance maturity model taking into account the main aspects of a comprehensive SOA governance maturity model so that this framework can be used for evaluating SOA governance maturity. Research results show that COBIT governance maturity model can be a suitable framework for evaluating a SOA governance maturity and finally the proposed framework of this study approved as a valid framework.
  • Layer Based 3D Clipping
    Yash Kedia, Aditya Hendre, Shreyans Jain, Shashidhar G. K and Fathima Afroz,National Institute of Technology,India
    ABSTRACT
    In this paper, we propose an unconventional layer based clipping algorithm for 3D regions. The proposed algorithm is based neither on the Sutherland-Hodgeman(SH) Algorithm nor the Liang-Barsky algorithm generally used for clipping in computer graphics and has a much better time efficiency than the other clipping algorithms available. The 3D space i.e. a cuboid is clipped w.r.t. a rectangular clipping window. The novelty of the algorithm is that 2D regions are being clipped down to the dimensions of the intersection region and then varied along the depth(z-axis) to get the volume of intersection. The algorithm has been implemented for both unrotated and rotated cuboids. The proposed algorithm can have massive applications in any field that requires layer-wise imaging of 3D spaces such as 3D printing, medical imaging, modelling, etc. given the simplicity of its implementation.
  • PCA Based Improved Feature Selection Using Software Metrics Correlation Data For Improved Decision Making
    Shweta,Sugandha Sharma and Rupinder Singh,Chandigarh University,India
    ABSTRACT
    A large number of metrics are available in the market today so it’s difficult to choose the relevant metrics for a particular context and further to control them. Thus, correlation is mandatory to be calculated between various metrics. PCA based feature selection is applied on the correlated metrics data for finding the most significant features. These features can be used for improving decision making by making available the principal features, reducing the use of redundant metrics.
  • Classifying Malware Based Behavior by LibSVM
    QI Biao1, JIANG Jianguo1, JING Xiang1, WANG Yan1, SHI Zhixin1 and LI Meimei2,1University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing and 2Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing
    ABSTRACT
    Malicious binaries prevail in the networked systems, such as computer viruses, Trojan horses, and Internet worms cause a primary threat to the security of computer networks. At the beginning of analyzing malware, static malware analysis methods employ byte-level content to detect malware binaries; however, polymorphism and obfuscation make static malware analysis methods be out of function. Dynamic analysis is more suitable for recognizing malware and monitoring malware behaviors which are vital to identify and difficult to conceal. Actually homogeneous malware families share similar behavioral features and heterogeneous malware families have different characteristics. We propose a method to classify malware families based behaviors. Our method includes two parts: (1) we transform raw malware data into vector space using bag of word model (BOW). (2) We employ LibSVM to classify malware data into corresponding families. Through experimental analysis our precision is up to 90%.
  • User Oriented Approach to Website Navigation Concept Using Mathematical Model
    Shalaka S. Thorat and Priyanka More,G.S. Moze College of Engineering,India
    ABSTRACT
    Web sites are most effective when they meet both the contents and usability needs of their users. Due to tremendous growth of web application, it increases the complexity of web applications and web navigation. Website design is easy task but, to navigate user efficiently is big challenge, one of the reason is user behavior is keep changing and web developer or designer not think according to user’s behavior. Designing well-structured websites to facilitate effective user navigation patterns has long been a challenge in web usage mining with various applications like navigation prediction and improvement of website management. Different methods have been proposed to reorganize WebPages to improve users navigation using users navigation data but it still causes disorienting users and increases user’s cognitive load. There is a need to improve the efficiency and the performance of a website for effective user navigation. Through this Paper we will propose Mathematical programming model to improve user navigation while minimizing alteration to current structure. Optimal solution can be very quickly obtained. We are minimizing unnecessary changes to the present structure of a Web site and hence can be applied for Web site maintenance on a regular basis.
  • Detection of Oriented Number Plate in Vehicle using Autocorrelation feature from Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix
    Veena M.N 1,Shruthi S.J2 and Vasudev.T 3,1P.E.S. College of Engineering,India and 2 Maharaja Institute of Technology,India
    ABSTRACT
    The efficiency of an automatic number plate recognition system depends directly on the proper effective preprocessing of the number plate. The OCRs available for recognition are capable of reading the number plates which are in proper orientation of 00. In many situations the vehicle number plates captured may be in any different orientation like 900, 1800 and 2700. These orientations in number plates are due to declamping of number plate at one end or toppling of vehicle. Such differently oriented number plates cannot be subjected for reading by OCRs and such situations require the system to detect the direction of orientation and correct the same before subjecting for reading. This paper proposes a work to detect the orientation of segmented number plates from vehicle image using autocorrelation feature from gray level co-occurrence matrix. A good volume of training samples are generated synthetically to train the system and the system is tested using sufficient testing samples. The results of system shows an overall efficiency of 65.61% and performs an essential preprocessing in an automatic number plate recognition system.
  • Petri Net Based Approach for Modeling Dynamic Context of ambient Systems
    Ali Sahnoun and Ramdane Maamri,Constantine 2 Abdelhamid Mehri University,Algeria
    ABSTRACT
    An ambient System is a network of tools and equipment that interacts to fulfill someone needs. This equipment should respect the context in which they act.In order to correctly fulfill their functions, we need to specify these contexts. In this paper, we propose a new approach that allows 1) to model the ambient systems as a multi agent system, and 2) to model both local context of each component and the global context of the ambient systems. The context is modeled using petri nets to formally verify and validate the system operations.
  • A System for Detection of Fabrication in Photocopy Document
    Suman V Patgar and Vasudev T,Maharaja Institute of Technology,India
    ABSTRACT
    Photocopy documents are very common in our normal life. People are permitted to carry and produce photocopied documents frequently, to avoid damages or losing the original documents. But this provision is misused for temporary benefits by fabricating fake photocopied documents. When a photocopied document is produced, it may be required to check for its originality. An attempt is made in this direction to detect such fabricated photocopied documents. This paper proposes an unsupervised system to detect fabrication in photocopied document. The work in this paper mainly focuses on detection of fabrication in photocopied documents in which some contents are manipulated by new contents above it using different ways. Testing is performed with a different set of collected testing samples resulted in an average detection rate of 70.14%.
  • A Review Paper:Analysis of VoIP over MPLS VPN with OPNET simulation
    EdmiraXhaferra,Aleksander Moisiu University,Albania
    ABSTRACT
    There are many disadvantages (cost, lack of security, difficult to manage large networks, support to non-sensitive applications, delay, etc.) associated with traditional networking, IP network, ATM and Frame relay networking. In this thesis, we are trying to build a better understanding to MPLS VPN and we researched to analyze the behavior of OSPF and RIPv2 based MPLS-BGP VPN architectures by using intense VoIP traffic. Then it comes with an OPNET simulation process and scenarios for MPLS-BGP VPN. At last, the conclusion is made: OSPF based MPLS-BGP VPN architecture has lower VPN delay, background traffic Flow delay, LSP delay and point-to-point Queuing delay, and has better performance in VPN load and VPN throughput that can acquire customer satisfaction and confidence as compared to the RIPv2 based MPLS-BGP VPN architecture.
  • Development of a Data Security Model Using Steganography
    Terungwa ,Simon Yange and Agana Moses A,Federal University of Agriculture,Nigeria
    ABSTRACT
    This paper studied steganography and designed a simplistic approach to a steganographic tool for hiding information in image files with the view of addressing the security challenges with data by hiding data from unauthorized users to improve its security. The Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM) was used in this work. The system was developed using Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.7.0_10 and MySQL Server as its backend. The system was tested with some hypothetical health records which proved the possibility of protecting data from unauthorized users by making it secret so that its existence cannot be easily recognized by fraudulent users. It further strengthens the confidentiality of patient records kept by medical practitioners in the health setting. In conclusion, this work was able to produce a user friendly steganography software that is very fast to install and easy to operate to ensure privacy and secrecy of sensitive data. It also produced an exact copy of the original image and the one carrying the secret message when compared with each.
  • X-TREPAN: A Multi Class Regression and Adapted Extraction of Comprehensible Decision Tree in Artificial Neural Networks
    Awudu Karim and Shangbo Zhou,Chongqing University, China
    ABSTRACT
    In this work, the TREPAN algorithm is enhanced and extended for extracting decision trees from neural networks. We empirically evaluated the performance of the algorithm on a set of databases from real world events. This benchmark enhancement was achieved by adapting Single-test TREPAN and C4.5 decision tree induction algorithms to analyze the datasets. The models are then compared with X-TREPAN for comprehensibility and classification accuracy. Furthermore, we validate the experimentations by applying statistical methods. Finally, the modified algorithm is extended to work with multi-class regression problems and the ability to comprehend generalized feed forward networks is achieved.
  • Client-based as well as Cross-Layer Optimized Circulation Range of Motion with Regard to Google Android Lollipop Products within Heterogeneous Femtocell/Wi -Fi Systems
    SeyedMostafaJavadiMoghaddam,Islamic Azad university of ferdows, Iran
    ABSTRACT
    There are many disadvantages (cost, lack of security, difficult to manage large networks, support to non-sensitive applications, delay, etc.) associated with traditional networking, IP network, ATM and Frame relay networking. In this thesis, we are trying to build a better understanding to MPLS VPN and we researched to analyze the behavior of OSPF and RIPv2 based MPLS-BGP VPN architectures by using intense VoIP traffic. Then it comes with an OPNET simulation process and scenarios for MPLS-BGP VPN. At last, the conclusion is made: OSPF based MPLS-BGP VPN architecture has lower VPN delay, background traffic Flow delay, LSP delay and point-to-point Queuing delay, and has better performance in VPN load and VPN throughput that can acquire customer satisfaction and confidence as compared to the RIPv2 based MPLS-BGP VPN architecture.
  • Evaluation of Nano-Composits Usage for Efficiency Enhacement in Active Layer Organic Light Emitting Diodes
    Hossein Fetanatkhah1,Parastoo Kafil1,Hamed Baghban1,S. Yousef Shafiei 1 and Ali Reza Marami Iranaq2,1University of Tabriz,Iran 2Mobile Communication Company of Iran,Iran
    ABSTRACT
    Since years, conjugated polymers have received attention as low cost materials in active-layer light emitting diodes, but the low efficiency of these materials, made it a problem which should be considered. Recently, metal nanoparticles are used in display device’s active layer to increase the efficiency of materials. Metal nanoparticles enhance coupling between the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) and exaction in emitting material [1]-[4]. In this work, we use SILVACO and MATLAB simulators to examine silver nanoparticles. With the control of Surface Plasmon (SP) and the emission wavelength we can find the best absorbance peak location which maximized photoluminescence (PL) intensity, depending on various Ag, Au and Al dot condition. These metal nanoparticles are used in Solar cells and Polymer LEDs for maximizing the coupling between the LSPR.
  • The Determinants of Cloud Computing Adoption in Saudi Arabia
    Abdullah Alhammadi, Clare Stanier and Alan Eardley,Staffordshire University, United Kingdom
    ABSTRACT
    There is a large volume of published studies investigating the factors that affect cloud adoption. However, there are very few studies which investigate cloud computing adoption in technologically developing countries and one focus of the research was to examine whether the factors which influence cloud computing adoption in technologically developed countries also apply in technologically developing countries. The research presented in this paper builds on the diffusion of innovation theory (DOI) and the Technology-organisation-environment (TOE) framework in order to investigate the factors which influence cloud adoption. Fourteen hypothesis were developed from the literature on cloud adoption and were examined in the research. Data was collected by using a web-based questionnaire and was analysed using a range of statistical measures. This paper discusses the design and implementation of the study, the data analysis and conclusions from the analysis and compares the findings of this study with the findings of similar studies in technologically developed countries. The study shows that there are some similarities as well as some differences in the factors that affect cloud adoption between technologically developed countries and technologically developing countries.
  • The Encryption Algorithms AES-PES16-1 and AES-RFWKPES16-1 Based on Networks PES16-1 and RFWKPES16-1
    National University of Uzbekistan, Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent
    ABSTRACT
    In this article we developed a new block encryption algorithm based on networks PES16-1 and RFWKPES16-1 using of the transfor- mations of the encryption algorithm AES, which is called AES-PES16-1 and AES-RFWKPES16-1 . The block's length of this encryption algo- rithm is 256 bits, the number of rounds are 10, 12 and 14. The advantages of the encryption algorithms are that, when encryption and decryption process used the same algorithm. In addition, the encryption algorithm AES-PES16-1 encrypts faster than AES
  • The encryption algorithm AES-RFWKIDEA32-1 based on network RFWKIDEA32-1
    National University of Uzbekistan, Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent
    ABSTRACT
    In this article we developed a new block encryption algo- rithm based on network RFWKIDEA32-1 using of the transformations of the encryption algorithm AES, which is called AES-RFWKIDEA32-1. The block's length of this encryption algorithm is 256 bits, the number of rounds are 10, 12 and 14. The advantages of the encryption algo- rithms are that, when encryption and decryption process used the same algorithm. In addition, the encryption algorithm AES-RFWKIDEA32-1 encrypts faster than AES
  • A Evaluation On The Correlation Between Ultrasound Image and Transducer Position For Automatic Ultrasound Operation Skill Assessing
    Zizui CHEN, Mohamed Shehata, Andrew Smith and Carnahan Heather,Memorial University of Newfoundland,Canada
    ABSTRACT
    This paper proposed a novel framework which automate the assessment of ultrasound operation skills. This framework contains four steps which evolves from assisted by expensive research-grade equipment to solely rely on ultrasound images without external devices. The detail of first step is discussed in this paper and the results show good confident to process to the following steps.
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